Coach Jeff

Written by Coach Jeff

13 COMMENTS

Do You Really Want to Get Rid of Lactic Acid? No. Here’s Why

Have you ever been running a race or workout, feeling strong, running faster than you ever have before, and you start to think about how great it is going to feel when you cross that finish line with your big PR.

But suddenly your body starts to shut down. You hit the wall, hard, and you can barely move your legs. Every step is like trying to bring your legs out of mud, and your legs go numb or even start tingling.

Time slips away, but every second feels like it takes forever. You realize your fastest run is long gone, and you finish feeling deflated and confused.

What happened to me?

Well, you have probably heard people throwing around the word lactate, or, depending on who you ask, lactic acid buildup.

It’s been blamed for fatigue, soreness, overtraining, and probably more, but until recently, the phenomenon of lactate accumulation during intense exercise was poorly understood.

Today we will dispel some of the myths about lactate at threshold, how to avoid lactic acid buildup while running, and how you can prevent fatigue while improving your lactate clearance.

Legs go numb when you run? Feel like you are running in mud? Lactate (lactic acid) is not as bad as we think, and understanding this will help prevent feeling like this on runs in the future. Very interesting!

Is Lactic Acid Buildup Bad for Runners?

The association of lactic acid and its negatively-charged ionic form, lactate, with fatigue during exercise has a long history.

Here’s the deal:

During the course of a prolonged and intense effort, muscles lose power.

The growing fatigue with exercise can be resisted for a while through great concentration and mental effort, but eventually everyone succumbs to fatigue.

Why did we used to think lactic acid was so bad for us?

Early physiologists studied the origins of muscular fatigue using electric impulses sent to muscles from dissected frogs.

Even these dismembered muscles fatigue after a while, proving that there is a chemical component to fatigue.

When these muscle fibers are analyzed, they show a high concentration of lactate and acid (hydrogen) ions. Therefore, physiologists concluded, the reason for muscular fatigue during exercise is accumulation of a compound called lactic acid.

This theory remained more or less unchallenged for much of the twentieth century.

It was only after the body’s energy supply systems were subjected to rigorous biochemical accounting that some discrepancies turned up.

For one thing, the body doesn’t actually produce lactic acid, just the negatively-charged ion, lactate.

“Acid” (hydrogen ions) is indeed produced, but not from the exact same biochemical step.

Furthermore, the ratio of lactate to hydrogen ions produced during exercise isn’t 1:1, as you would expect if lactic acid was being produced.

These ambiguities led to a reexamination and eventual overhaul of the “lactate paradigm” in the early 2000s, spearheaded by Roger Robergs.

What Does Lactate Do?

Let us explain:

Robergs, an accomplished biochemist, took a hard look at each step in the metabolic process that turns sugars (glucose in the blood and glycogen in the muscles) into energy when you exercise.

Most runners have heard the following story about energy pathways:

Aerobic respiration turns sugars into fuel using oxygen, and doesn’t have any harmful byproducts.

Anaerobic respiration, which doesn’t kick in until you’re operating past your aerobic limit, can generate energy from sugar without using oxygen, but results in waste products—lactate and acid.

Robergs and others showed that this common understanding has some flaws.

It turns out that anaerobic respiration functions all the time, turning sugar into a compound called pyruvate, releasing some hydrogen ions at the same time.

Aerobic respiration works to clean up the pyruvate, using oxygen to burn the pyruvate into carbon dioxide and water, which can be exhaled.

The aerobic process also consumes acid (hydrogen ions), which retards the buildup of acid in the muscles.

The generation of lactate is actually a side reaction: when excess pyruvate and acid start to accumulate (when the rate of anaerobic respiration overtakes the aerobic system’s ability to remove the waste), the body uses a pyruvate molecule and a hydrogen ion to create lactate, another way in which it can slow down the buildup of acid.

The lactate can also be shuttled out of the muscles, into the blood, and burned in other areas of the body for more energy.

How Can I Prevent Lactate From Slowing Me Down?

All of this biochemistry might be very interesting to a physiologist, but what about the rest of us who just want to know how to stop it from happening in the future?

We can take a few lessons from this right off the bat:

This proves that your aerobic strength is a huge factor in your performance.

Here’s the deal:

While your body has various mechanisms to buffer the acid produced during high-intensity efforts, all of these are limited.

Only increasing your aerobic fitness will allow you to substantially increase how far and how fast you can run.

Now:

Lactate has a greater role than simply causing fatigue allows you to better understand the place of high-intensity workouts at or faster than the “lactate threshold.”

These workouts aren’t just running hard for the sake of running hard—they train your body to produce, process, and burn lactate (as a fuel!) at a greater rate.

This can improve your stamina over short and medium-duration races like the 5k and 10k.

Finally, there is still the inescapable fatigue that comes with acid overload.

There really is no getting around this in shorter races.

You can run hard interval workouts and races to improve your ability to buffer the acid produced when running at very fast speeds, but everyone is ultimately limited by the acidity in their muscles and blood.

So, is there such a thing as “lactic acid production” during exercise?

Not really.

Your body certainly produces acid during exercise, and it produces lactate as well. But it’s the former, not the latter, that’s the main culprit for fatigue.

Regardless, it will likely still be a long time before we stop hearing about lactic acid buildup and so on.

The fuss about terminology might be overblown, but understanding the real mechanisms at work when we run hard and get tired can help understand the purpose and importance of the various workouts you use in training.

If you want to understand more about lactate clearance, we explain that in further detail too.

Smarter is Better

We’ll help you injury-free and train
smarter to achieve your goals

Here’s what we’ve got for you

Free access to a treasure chest of proven training guides, resources and ebooks. 4 of our best-selling ebooks, 5 in-depth video courses, 6 high impact training resources, and 4 race-specific training guides.

You’ll also be enrolled in our 20-part course that lays out the proven framework for training smarter, getting and staying injury-free, and crushing your PRs, all sent directly to your inbox.

An organized reference guide to the “best of the best” of RunnersConnect, and how to fit it all together to help you train smarter, stay injury-free and run faster.

References

Connect with Jeff Gaudette on Google+

13 Responses on “Do You Really Want to Get Rid of Lactic Acid? No. Here’s Why

    • The answer to that question is not a simple yes or no. Lactate can be used as an energy source and is reconverted back into energy through the Cori cycle. However, if there is too much lactate produced the resulting excess hydrogen ion will impair muscle performance and slow you down.

  1. The terminology used for aerobic- anaerobic respiration isn’t as sharp as we would like to see. Most of the workouts, for instance a 1500m. runner, can be based on a large amount of high quality aerobic training. Once you got that level, you would need less ‘anaerobic fatique’ training and a few races to be on your PB-level.

  2. I am obese and fat sits on top of my muscles. I assumed the body produces lactic acid.

    When I jog…I can feel the fat cells bursting. Is this the lactic acid burning the fat cells?

  3. It seems there are two issues that one would need to boost. Limiting the amount of “damage” occurring (to less extremes) in the first place and optimizing recovery. One is to boost the aerobic system’s ability to remove the waste. The other would be to boost recovery speed by getting the nutrients the body needs in order to be able to repair itself quickly enough.

    How can this be done?

    You obviously make a great case for both training regiment and strength training which I do believe in along with increased efficiency (better running form and increasing lean muscle % and improving body composition). But as far as nutrition and supplementation, do you have any articles you can point me to either issue that take this new understanding into account?

    I can deduce that consuming enough magnesium should still be important to recovery. Magnesium is said to help maintain muscle function and regulate blood glucose levels and aid in the production of energy and protein and fuel body when exercising, among other things. So I believe that should at least prolong the amount of effort exerted before the acid accumulates by regulating glucose level so it doesn’t get too high, and by fueling the muscles and producing protein I suspect it may even aid in recovery of the muscle tissue.

    Potassium builds protein, breaks down and helps body use carbohydrates and build muscle in addition to regulating acid-base balance. Perhaps the acid-base balance component can to some degree delay the acid levels from getting too high, and counteract it with the lactate more efficiently. But perhaps more importantly aiding in breaking down carbohydrates as fuel and using it, and building proteins for repair and muscular growth will help long term muscle growth and increasing body’s ability (aerobic system) to remove the waste, while also in the short term allowing body to use more carbohydrates rather than the glucose and glycogen that will result in acid before it is forced to produce more acid as a result.

    Not to say that one shouldn’t push body past lactate threshold, but instead, I think you can increase the amount of exertion needed until that occurs or in other words, build strength and endurance.

    Certainly strength training and athletes will attest to bananas aiding recovery, but If our understanding on WHY they aid recovery was based upon an old paradigm that is proven incorrect, then there may be more efficient ways to recover than the traditional means. If it’s only the muscle repair and not the acid-base balance, then one might get better results from amino acid loading and proteins and food rich in magnesium. Maybe potassium is important too, certainly there are positive results many will attest to, but maybe there are other vitamins and nutrients or even micronutrients in a banana that help as well, and there’s a more efficient nutrition plan for a quick recovery.

    • Wow Mike, I really appreciate how your thought process evolves! My first thought after Coach Jeff’s excellent distinction between lactate and acid post acutely strenuous exercise was also akin to knowing which targeted nutrients one might use to speed up both clearance and to incite muscle tissue recovery.

      In our case, the quest is for a fellow who endured a MI 3-1/2 years ago…and since he’s felt so improved, recently decided to take a much longer than normal and slightly uphill walk…which by second day post, now finds his butt and leg muscles feeling “very” sore…as we surmised was due to build up of lactic acid…which I now know is more about “lactate.”

      So, although my friend is already eating a daily banana and taking a Krebs Cycle ratio balanced formula of Potassium and Magnesium, hmm, as I consider all that you and Jeff have so thoughtfully illuminated, I think we will add in Taurine (excellent amino support for heart) and increase the daily Mg. Since he’s still on two diuretics to avoid fluid build up (one potassium-sparing, the other not) there is bound to be current deficiency of Mg (via ‘recent increase’ of metabolic challenge) and since most Americans are deficient in this mineral that is involved in more than 300 physiological processes, it stands to reason that even a younger and seasoned athlete might think about doing the same for faster recovery. Caveat: To be sure, I am not providing advice, but after years of following the Life Extension Foundation’s bounty of credible research, I have gleaned a few pearls…but please be sure to do your own investigation in this regard that might start at http://www.lef.org.

      All in all, sincere thanks to Coach Jeff for this interesting site which I will be returning to and referring on to others in the family as three are marathoners and one is in training for his second Iron Man competition which happens in June. Whew!

      • Thanks so much for your feedback Dar! Glad you were able to enjoy the article, and also find some help from some of the other readers of the site. We have plenty of articles for you to check out, so we look forward to hearing more feedback from you!

  4. It could be that a number of people are too quick to jump at the conclusion that lactic acid doesn’t cause fatigue. This trend relates to how lactic acid effects muscle fatigue at low temperatures verses body-like temperatures.

    Contrary to sources that say that lactic acid doesn’t cause fatigue, a 2006 study by Knuth etc. (Low cell pH depresses peak power in rat skeletal muscle fibers at both 30 C and 15 C: implication for muscle fatigue, Journal of Physiology) shows that lactic acid does cause fatigue.

    Knuth studied the effects of lactic acid on both slow twitch (ST) and fast twitch fibers (FT). At 30 degrees C, ST had 12% Peak Force reduction, 25% Contraction Velocity Reduction and 34% Peak Power reduction. FT had 4-11% Peak Force reduction, 32% Contraction Velocity reduction, and 34% Peak Power reduction. Certainly these reductions are significant.

    I wonder what percentage of the people who are now saying that lactic acid doesn’t cause fatigue, have read the Knuth study.

  5. Coach Tina!
    Bit late but might still be of use for others. Below the link for the pdf of the article mention above:
    Low cell pH depresses peak power in rat skeletal muscle fibres at both 30°C and 15°C: implications for muscle fatigue

    S. T. Knuth, H. Dave, J. R. Peters andR. H. Fitts
    Article first published online: 6 SEP 2006

    DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2006.106732

    Issue The Journal of Physiology
    The Journal of Physiology
    Volume 575, Issue 3, pages 887–899, September 2006

    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1113/jphysiol.2006.106732/pdf

  6. There’s no such thing as a safe firework, says Lisa Reichter, a trauma nurse coordinator at Children’s Hospital Medical Center in Omaha, Neb. Even sparklers burn at temperatures above 1,000 degrees and cause a surprising number of injuries each year. Instead, pull out the glow sticks to avoid burning little fingers and hands.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Adding new comments is only available for RunnersConnect Insider members.



Already a member? Login here

Want to become an Insider for free? Register here

Pin It on Pinterest